Rabbits are tender animals that are susceptible to various diseases. Their breeding is not easy, as it may seem to beginner rabbit breeders, because often these pets are exposed to such a dangerous disease as coccidiosis. In order to protect your offspring from death, it is important to know how the disease manifests itself.
Knowing the symptoms, it is already possible at the first stage to carry out the appropriate treatment. So what is coccidiosis in rabbits? How to deal with it? Let’s take a closer look at the symptoms and treatment guidelines for coccidiosis in rabbits.
Coccidiosis in rabbits
Coccidiosis is a disease caused by unicellular parasites of coccidia. They have a damaging effect on the condition of the liver and intestines of the animal. Young rabbits aged 3-4 months are most susceptible to this disease. But still, adults are not safe from this dangerous infection.
Experts say that parasites of this disease are present in the rabbit’s body from the first days of its birth, just as a person is born already with worms and other helminths. The presence of coccidia in the animal’s body does not present any particular danger; the main thing is to prevent and not create conditions for their active reproduction, development and appearance of coccidiosis disease.
The affected organ by coccidia will no longer be able to function normally. As a result of this, part of the consumed food cannot be digested, all useful components will not be absorbed in the body. For this reason, the sick rabbit begins to lose weight, depletion of the body occurs and as a result, he dies.
Sources and factors of infection
Many coccidia cysts are found in the feces of infected animals. Sometimes, through feces, pathogens pass to surrounding objects, feed, which in the end can lead to infections of other healthy individuals. Therefore, the main source of coccidiosis infection is considered contact and fecal-oral.
The initial stage of rabbit coccidiosis
The sources of coccidiosis infection include:
- Through feed mixtures, water, and also through milk, in which there are ripe coccidia;
- Infection through the feces of infected individuals;
- From other animals that carry the disease virus;
- Milk of a nursing rabbit that is infected with the disease;
- Various rodents, birds, insects;
- Tools, uniform of farm workers.
Often animals become infected with the disease on those farms where workers are careless about their maintenance and do not follow appropriate sanitary standards. Sometimes animals that live in uncleaned cells eat feces, which contain coccidia and subsequently become infected with an infection.
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Factors that contribute to the development of the disease:
- The content of rabbits in one cage in a crowded state;
- Failure to comply with quarantine regulations during the acquisition of new individuals;
- If the cells are located in the wrong position, which allows the penetration of rodents or birds that carry infection pathogens;
- Failure to comply with sanitary and veterinary rules for the maintenance of these animals.
The disease does not spread by airborne droplets, it has an epidemic character. Its distribution is explained by the fact that when pathogens enter the equipment and work clothes of farm workers, feeders, feed and other items are quickly transferred to animal cells.
As a result of this, the infection of all offspring that lives in these cells occurs. Coccidia are resistant to aggressive substances, sometimes even disinfection does not help to remove these parasites. The only thing that kills these parasites is the treatment of the room with hot water.
Types of disease
Depending on the area of infection, the disease can be of the following types:
- Intestinal coccidiosis;
- Hepatic coccidiosis.
The symptoms of these types of infections are different.. To prescribe the right treatment, you need to know the symptoms of two types of coccidiosis in order to identify it and immediately begin treatment.
Symptoms of rabbit coccidosis
Coccidiosis occurs in acute and chronic form. Acute coccidiosis manifests itself on the third day after the lesion.
But coccidiosis in chronic form occurs when the individual has already been ill and cured of the disease. Sometimes part of the pathogens of the infection remains in the body, but at the same time it does not harm the tissues of the liver and intestines.
Symptoms of the intestinal form
Intestinal coccidiosis – is considered a dangerous form, which has a rapid development. It is accompanied by acute symptoms.
During the intestinal type of the disease, signs appear:
- The occurrence of alternating acute diarrhea with a rapid course and constipation;
- In the feces of animals there are mucous and bloody discharge;
- A strong increase in body temperature. To the touch the body of the animal is hot enough;
- Sometimes you may notice bloating;
- Poor appetite or its complete absence;
- Slow growth of the animal’s body, its complete stop;
- Purulent discharge from the eyes, nose;
- The coat becomes of poor quality, in appearance it is disheveled, without shine;
- The abdomen becomes flabby and saggy.
Before dying, the rabbit has severe cramps of the whole body. The animal may fall on its back, while it throws back its head and makes quick movements with its paws. If you do not take appropriate measures at the time and do not provide appropriate treatment, the individual may die in 2 weeks.
Symptoms of the liver form (if there are white spots on the liver)
Unlike intestinal coccidiosis, the symptoms in the liver form are less pronounced and not so acute. It lasts much longer, from 30 days to 59 days.
Coccidiosis sick rabbits
With the liver form, the animal has signs as with intestinal coccidiosis, only the yellow color of the eye mucosa is added, and white spots appear on the liver.
A favorable outcome in the presence of a liver form is much higher than with an intestinal one. But often this disease becomes chronic. As a result of this, the infected individual becomes dangerous for other rabbits, so it should be deposited in a separate place. An infected individual may die or, conversely, recover in a few months.
How can sick animals be treated?
How and how to treat coccidiosis in rabbits? Coccidiosis is well treated with drugs. Drugs against this disease are sold in many veterinary pharmacies. They are used for treatment and for prevention.
During the use of drugs, infected individuals are placed in a separate cage. The cage containing diseased animals is disinfected and steamed with hot air. If treatment starts from the first days of the onset of the disease, then the chances of recovery will be much higher. With timely treatment, the survival rate is 75-80%.
How to give medicine (how to breed and in what dosage)?
Coccidiosis in rabbits is treated with the following drugs:
Rules for the use of drugs:
- Sulfadimethatoxin, Sulfapyridazine. The medicine is given along with water. It is added to drinking water. On the first day, 0.2 grams of the drug is given per 1 kilogram of the individual’s weight; on the next 4 days of treatment, 0.1 grams of the drug is given per 1 kilogram of the animal’s body weight. After this, you need to take a break for 5 days and then repeat the treatment;
- Phthalazole To enhance the effect, this drug is best used in conjunction with Norsulfazole. An affected individual is given 0.3 grams of Norsulfazole and 0.1 grams of Phthalazole per 1 kilogram of rabbit weight. The course of treatment with these drugs should be approximately 5 days. After this, you need to take a break for 5 days and the treatment is repeated again;
- Furazolidone. During coccidiosis, the affected rabbit is daily given 30 mg of the drug per 1 kilogram of body weight of the individual. The course of treatment is a week;
- Baykoks. This tool is considered the most effective in the treatment of coccidiosis. It always has a positive effect and in most cases helps to completely cure this terrible infection. Many experienced rabbit breeders claim that even advanced stages of coccidiosis can be cured with this tool. The instructions for this tool indicate several methods of application. You can inject 2 cubes of the preparation of the infected individual and already, then pour the medicine into the drinker at the rate of 0.2 ml per 1 kilogram of the animal’s weight. Sometimes a medicine is diluted with water and, according to the instructions, it is administered to an infected animal at a dosage of 10 ml once a day. The exact application can be clarified in a veterinary pharmacy or to study in detail the instructions for use;
- Chloramphenicol and sulfadimezin. Sometimes, with coccidiosis, the animal can be given a solution of chloramphenicol, this drug is given in a dosage of 40 grams or the drug Sulfadimesin in a dosage of 150 mg is given.
The rules for the use of other drugs for coccidiosis in rabbits can be found in the instructions for them. Typically, the instructions describe in detail the characteristics and rules for taking the drug.
Treatment with folk remedies (iodine)
Many experienced rabbit breeders argue that coccidosis in rabbits can also be treated with folk remedies, such as using iodine. It provides a stop to the active development of coccidia and causes the oxidation of those substances that have remained unprocessed by the stomach.
Rules for the treatment of coccidiosis with iodine for rabbits:
- On the 25th day of pregnancy, the females are fed with a 0.01% solution of iodine in a dosage of 100 ml every day;
- On the 5th day after the appearance of the cubs, iodine must be removed from the diet, on the 5th day it is returned again;
- Individuals should drink iodine for another 15 days. Every day you need to give a 0.02% iodine solution in a dosage of 200 ml. As a result, not only rabbits are protected from infection, but also rabbits themselves, because they receive iodine together with mother’s milk;
- Be sure immediately after the upset rabbits from the rabbit need to drink with 0.01% iodine solution. Each day, one individual should be given 50 ml of iodine solution;
- After 10 days, the iodine solution must be removed from the diet;
- About after 5 days you need to water the animals again with iodine solution. Drink a 0.02% solution of iodine in a dosage of 100 ml. The course of treatment should be 15 days.
Of course, the use of drugs and iodine are mandatory measures in the treatment of coccidiosis, but do not forget about prevention. Because sometimes compliance with preventive measures can prevent the occurrence of dire consequences for all rabbit offspring.
Preventive measures for the treatment of coccidiosis
Remember the following prophylaxis rules for coccidiosis in rabbits:
- Rabbit cages should be cleaned regularly. They should always be in a clean state, there should be no droppings and food debris left in them;
- Without fail, every day you need to thoroughly wash the drinkers and change the water in them as often as possible;
- Feeders should always be clean, all food debris should be removed from them;
- To block access to penetration into animal cells by various rodents;
- It is necessary to keep adults separately from young animals;
- Young animals should be kept in spacious cages in an amount of not more than 25 goals;
- Constantly, it is advisable to do the treatment of rabbit dwellings every day with boiling water and an ultraviolet lamp;
- You can not feed young individuals with bran, legumes, alfalfa and other feed mixtures with a high protein content;
- A month in quarantine keeps newly purchased individuals;
- Be sure to ensure during feeding that hay, grass or root crops do not fall on the surface of the earth contaminated with feces.
There is a good remedy that is used during the prevention of coccidiosis in rabbits – Zoalen. This drug is given to animals for 10 days. 250 mg of the drug is added per 1 kg of feed every day. It is recommended to feed rabbits with special granular feed mixtures, which contain substances necessary for the prevention of coccidiosis.
However, many rabbit breeders can not always determine the presence of a disease from the first days, so it goes into a severe stage.
In most cases, with an advanced stage, the animal dies, even if treatment is provided. Many veterinary specialists advise, even if individuals survived after coccidiosis, it is still better to send them for slaughter. This is due to the fact that this disease may reappear in a few months. But is it possible to eat meat from a rabbit coccidia patient? Veterinarians in this case disagree. In any case, it is better not to take risks.
It is recommended to burn dead carcasses after infection, because the infection can spread to healthy individuals.
And finally, a short video on the topic: